13 |THE MAGNETIC FORCES
The Magnetic Forces
- Solving the mystery of electricity and magnetism is perhaps the most important achievement of the Living Atom Theory.
- For a long time, we knew that electrically polarised bodies and magnets produce forces which results in attraction or repulsion between them. In my writings, I prefer to use the expression "electric polarisation" instead of "electric charge".
- The French physicist Charles Augustin Coulomb (1736 - 1806) made the first quantitative investigation of electrostatic and magnetic forces in 1785 using a torsion balance. He summarised his finding with the following equations:
(1 x 2) / 2
(1 x 2) / 2
- In words, this means that the attraction or repulsion force () is directly proportional to the product of electric charges (1, 2) or magnetic pole strengths (1, 2), and inversely proportional to the square of distance (2) between them. With different charges or different poles, there is attraction. With similar charges or poles, there is repulsion.
- We will designate North () side of a magnet which deviates a compass needle the same way as the north pole of the earth. We designate positive () such polarisation which is obtained when a glass rod is rubbed against silk.
- Coulomb's equations are simple and attractive. They were the basis upon which electric and magnetic units were derived, but they simply do not express the real nature of electricity and magnetism. To be valid, the charge () and the pole strength () would have to be centred at one precise point which, of course, is just an approximation. In the case of real bodies and moderate distances between them, the distance () is uncertain which makes Coulomb's equations quite irrelevant.
- By introducing these two fictitious units ( and ), the science irrevocably separated electricity from magnetism. However, the phenomenon called electric current cannot be separated from the magnetic field. Furthermore, electricity can be induced by changing magnetic fields. Consequently, in Physics we find several different chapters dealing with this subject, like Electrostatics, Magnetostatics, Electric Current, Electro-magnetism, Magnetic inductions.
- This diversity results in a bunch of complicated bizarre mathematical formulae. For physicists and students, it is a very hard task to digest them.
- The beauty and simplicity of the Living Atom Theory is amazing. Everything can be explained with the different patterns created by just one elementary unit which I called FREE ATOM in my writings.
- Expressing the attraction and repulsion forces with the same equation is perhaps the worst error of Coulomb's law. There is a huge difference between them. In this short study, I focus to explain only the magnetic attractions and repulsions.
- Magnetic attraction is Nature's strong tendency. It can be achieved with only one magnet acting on any ferromagnetic body. As for the repulsion, two magnets are absolutely required. We also need a special device which oblige them to work in repulsion. I made some very simple experiments, and I hope that everybody who is interested in magnetic forces will do them.
- To study the repulsion, I constructed a device as shown in Figure 13-01. A guiding rod (made from non-ferromagnetic material) obliges the magnets to work in repulsion. We can see that the weight of the upper magnet is matched by the repulsion force as though an invisible compression spring existed between the two similar sides. The principal axis of the magnets must be aligned. With only the slightest asymmetry, a considerable horizontal force occurs which tries to overturn one of the magnets.
- This overturning tendency can be demonstrated with another simple experiment. If we place two permanent magnet bars ( and ) on a slippery horizontal surface (Figure 13-02) and we fix magnet , we can readily observe how aggressively magnet overturns in order to achieve an attraction.
- We can state that the magnetic repulsion is just an attempt of the magnets trying to change the repulsion into attraction.
- Another interesting result can be achieved by trying to diminish the gap between the two identical poles in our setup of Figure 13-01. We have to push the guiding rod down with a force stronger than the repulsion. According to Coulomb's equation, one would expect the force of repulsion to increase, but in actual fact we observe a strong overturning tendency, and the repulsion force does not increase. Even more surprising is that if the strength of the two magnets is different, the repulsion eventually turns into attraction, and the two similar sides are sticking together!! This strange behaviour can be explained only with the help of the Living Atom Theory.
- A graphic method is the best to explain magnetic forces. Physics has traditionally used imaginary flux line patterns to represent magnetic fields or magnetic circuits. The Living Atom Theory goes one step further, and considers the flux lines as really existing structures which are able to support the magnetic forces.
- All forces in Nature rely on some supporting structure. Introducing the notion of forces without counter reaction forces has been one of the most confusing achievements of modern Physics.
- For simplicity, it is handy to draw only two REPRESENTATIVE flux lines. So, the picture of a permanent magnet bar would be such as shown in Figure 13-03. A representative flux line is a kind of average which allows us to explain magnetic forces. In reality, there are several billions of different flux lines. Furthermore, the pattern is not steady at all. It can change several billion times in one second in order to assure the best living equilibrium for its elementary units.
- The flux line has a vectorial characteristic which is indicated with a short arrow . The direction of the arrow merely indicates the North () or South () side of the magnet. The actual magnetic pole is just an irrelevant notion!
- The flux lines always form enclosed loops. In the air (or in vacuum), they have the tendency to shorten (like stretched rubber bands). A shorter line is more stable. They also prefer to pass through ferromagnetic materials which reinforces their stability.
- To briefly review Chapter 03, the elementary units within the flux lines are called SECONDARY FREE ATOMS, and they are represented by the sign -10. Dealing only with magnetic forces, we can omit the index -1. So, the short arrow in Figure 13-03 also represents the elementary unit of the flux line.
- We have in this unit a very tiny self-governed (living) gyroscope which is embedded in a globe of elastic medium as shown in Figure 13-04. The space of the universe is completely filled up by -10-s (inside and outside the matter). We should imagine that in a volume of 1 cubic millimetre, there are approximately 10100 -10-s. When a flux line pattern changes, there are always different -10-s involved.
- There are stable and unstable -10-s. The unstable ones have the tendency to form enclosed loops in order to increase their living equilibrium.
- Let us go a step further, and consider two adjacent -10-s that are squeezed together with forces . (See Figure 13-05.) The system acts as a compressed spring, with the elastic medium insuring the proper function of the gyroscopes, never allowing them to touch.
- The direction of the rotating axis has a vectorial characteristic, which is indicated by the arrow.
- Also, one should recall that a configuration or increases the vital equilibrium of the -10-s. Conversely, a configuration is intolerable, and an immediate change in the flux line pattern occurs.
- In Figure 13-06, we have two magnets with adjacent and sides. At points and , the configuration is . Then, the flux line patterns are disrupted, and the new picture is like in Figure 13-07.
- In this situation, there is a strong attraction force between the two magnets because of the tendency to shorten the flux lines. The flux line pattern is the supporting structure of the force!! This is an excellent example showing how illogical it is to introduce magnetic attraction forces without supporting structures between two different poles.
- To further our understanding of magnetic repulsion, let us look at Figure 13-08. At points and , we have the stable pattern which acts as an invisible compressed spring as it was explained earlier in connection with Figure 13-05. However, this situation is quite idealised with the two magnets being perfectly aligned. It is more usual in Nature to find some asymmetry. Then, we have to consider the picture as shown in Figure 13-09. It is obvious that at points and , the compression spring works in such a direction that there is a tendency to overturn one of the magnets and transform the repulsion into an attraction.
- In the original device (Figure 13-01), the guiding rod prevents the overturning of the magnets. When we push the rod down with a force greater than the repulsion, the intelligent flux line pattern will take a more stable position as shown in Figure 13-10. The repulsion force will not be increased as predicted by Coulomb's law. Such a pattern can even be observed using a sensitive compass needle.
- The picture (Figure 13-10) is valid only if the two magnets are equally strong. Generally, one magnet is stronger than the other. Then, we should consider the picture Figure 13-11 where magnet is stronger than magnet .
- The dominating flux lines of magnet are partly passing through the lower part of magnet . This lower part is then acting as a ferromagnetic material which is strongly attracted by magnet . The similar sides are sticking together!! It is interesting that if we separate the magnets, they will not lose their strength, but the flux lines will return to their original position as shown in Figure 13-03. This strange behaviour definitely contradicts some principles of today's Physics. Meanwhile, it proves the existence of intelligently acting flux lines, and it strongly supports the Living Atom Theory.
- To make use of the attraction and repulsion forces of permanent magnets to create continuous movements was always a dream of some inventors. Such attempts generally end in failure. Most physicists and engineers simply dismiss any such notion since such a machine would be a "perpetuum mobile" which violates the basic natural law called "first law of thermodynamics" or "energy conservation".
- I suggest that the energy conservation is NOT a natural law, but it is merely a concept introduced by human science.
- Whereas a horse can easily be harnessed to provide useful work, the subatomic living units are much more astute, and will only work to improve their vital equilibrium. When we try to upset this equilibrium, the effort we are required to invest is greater than that generated by the subatomic units as they regain their original equilibrium.
- Possibly, the most interesting attempt to harness the work potential of magnets was done by Joseph W. Newman, an inventor from Lucedale (Mississippi, U.S.A.). Having already discussed in some detail Newman's Energy machine in my previous text, I will only briefly review his concept.
- His basic idea is simple. Even a compass needle would continuously rotate if by some magic the direction of the earth's magnetic field were to be switched twice during each revolution.
- Although we are unable to change the earth's magnetic field, one could easily change the magnetic field created by a solenoid coil, which is what Newman did. The diagram of such a device is shown in Figure 13-12
- The only delicate problem is the precise commutator switch which should be activated by the rotating shaft.
- Once I assembled this apparatus, I observed that the permanent magnet turned vigorously even if the Ammeter showed only negligible current consumption!!
- The commutator switch transforms the solenoid current into an intricate electro-magnetic vibration. It behaves like an "alternating current". If the inductance value of the solenoid is high enough, the energy consumption is minimised. (Like in the primary coil of a transformer which is not charged.) Fortunately, the magnetic field of the solenoid works even in this condition, and the rotation of the permanent magnet is assured. This behaviour is probably the most interesting aspect of Newman's machine!
- Sceptic physicists might claim that this device is merely an example of an electric motor which is driven by the energy of the battery, but their argument is weak! The battery's only function is to rapidly change the magnetic field of the solenoid. The actual work is done by the rotating permanent magnet. If this work equals the amount of current consumption plus loss due to friction, then we have a motor with 100% efficiency.
- It would appear that this would approach the definition of the "perpetual mobile".
- However, this "energy machine" does not really fit into this category, since permanent magnets working in such a setup will gradually lose their strength.
- Newman's machine really works with a VERY high efficiency! It can serve as an excellent tool for physicists and students to observe the work done by the "living" magnetic flux lines.
- This will eventually lead Science to explain the "energy conservation" in a different way.
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- Copyright © 1996 by Szekely, Etienne
- All rights reserved.
- Produced in Canada.
- ISBN 0-929105-10-9